In vitro fertilization

In vitro fertilization (or IVF) is a method of infertility treatment in which fertilization occurs outside the woman’s body. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis can be performed within IVF cycle that allows selecting healthy embryos for the implantation, as well as the sex selection of the unborn child.



Using IVF method

You may consider using IVF treatment if:

  • ovulation disorders;
  • endometriosis;
  • absence of fallopian tubes;
  • history of miscarriages;
  • male fertility factor (insufficient or even absence of spermatozoids in the seminal fluid);
  • high risk of serious hereditary and genetic diseases.


How is the procedure of IVF carried out?

The procedure of in vitro fertilization is carried out within several phases.

  1. Follicle Stimulation

Follicle stimulation is the process which encourages your ovaries to develop multiple follicles that contain multiple eggs.  Medication is used to stimulate your hormones therefore increase the chance of conception.  Exist the several types of stimulation protocols and one which is best suited depending on individual circumstances of the patient is used.


2. Puncture of follicles

Ultrasound controlled procedure of puncture of the follicles is performed to remove the mature eggs, using special needle. To carry out this procedure the woman will receive the mild dose of anesthesia.


3. Fertilization

Fertilization phase is performed in a protected environment of the Embryo Lab. The extracted female’s eggs and pretreated sperm of the male partner (or donor’s) are joined together in a culture dish with nutrient fluid for fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is placed into the CO2 incubator where a number of embryos can form (culturing) under the supervision of the Embryo Lab specialists.


4.  Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is the part of an IVF treatment to overcome certain male infertility problems and involves a process of fertilization, where single sperm is being injected into the egg by the embryologist using the special equipment.


5. Using ICSI method

You may consider using ICSI method if:

  • low sperm count (oligospermia);
  • low sperm morphology or motility (asthenozoospermia);
  • antisperm antibodies (teratozoospermia).

In such instances the number of active morphologically correct sperm may not be sufficient for successful IVF;

  • previously had a vasectomy or unsuccessful vasectomy reversal;
  • during extracting the sperm from the tissue of the testicle or epididymis by the surgical method (obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia);
  • during retrograde ejaculation or when cryopreservation is used;
  • in case if you receive a small number of ovum in the puncture process. Usually, there is no direct correction between the number of retrieved oocytes and effectiveness of IVF, but the use of the ICSI technique provides greater frequency of successful fertilization, eliminating the possibility of accidental penetration of two sperm cells to the oocyte (abnormal fertilization) and so the result is predictable;
  • in case of absence of fertilization while using the standard IVF methods within previous treatment protocols;
  • if the cause of the infertility is a immunological factor. The presence of antispermatozoal antibodies in women or severe agglutination of sperms in men can block the process of fertilization in vitro;
  • if PGD is planned.


6. Embryo Transfer

Embryo transfer is a simpler than the egg retrieval procedure and usually takes place three five days after the egg retrieval. The embryos are transferred into the uterus through a very fine catheter passed through the cervix, a procedure similar to a pap smear. This procedure is completely painless and the patient will return to their home the same day.


7. Pregnancy test

We recommend that the follow up blood tests and obstetrical ultrasound (if applicable) will be done within twelve to 14 days after embryo transfer.

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